In water distribution networks (WDNs) the classic pressure control valves (PCVs) are mechanical/hydraulic devices aimed at maintaining the target pressure just downstream or upstream the PCV pipe, namely pressure reduction or sustaining valves. From a modelling standpoint, the major drawback of such local control is that classic PCVs may require target pressure varying over time with the pattern of delivered water because the controlled node is not strategic for the optimal WDN pressure control. Current information and communication technology allows transferring streams of pressure data from any WDN node to the PCV. Thus, remotely real-time control (RRTC) permits real-time electric regulation of PCVs to maintain a fixed target pressure value in strategic critical nodes, resulting in optimal control of pressure and background leakages. This paper shows three strategies for the electric regulation of RRTC PCVs, which use as control variables the shutter opening degree (SD), the valve hydraulic resistance (RES) and the valve head loss (HL). The Apulian network is used to compare the three strategies, while the application on the real Oppegård WDN yields further discussions. Results show that HL and RES strategies outperform SD; constraining the maximum shutter displacement helps SD stability although it still needs calibration.
- pressure control valves
- remote real-time control
- water distribution networks
- First received 8 September 2016.
- Accepted in revised form 13 March 2017.
- © IWA Publishing 2017