Residual chlorine concentration decreases along distribution networks because of factors such as water quality, physical properties of the pipeline, and hydraulic conditions. Hydraulic conditions are primarily governed by transient events generated by valve modulation or pumping action. We investigate the impact of transient events on the rate of chlorine decay under various flow conditions. To comprehensively compare the performance of existing chlorine models, 14 candidate models for chlorine concentration were used under various transient conditions. Two-dimensional transient flow analysis was conducted to investigate the unknown processes of chlorine decay under transient conditions. General formulations for modeling chlorine decay were used to comprehensively study the decay under unsteady conditions and to effectively incorporate the impact of transients into generic model structures. The chlorine decay patterns in the constructed water distribution system were analyzed in the context of transient events. Linear relationships between the model parameters and the frequency of transient events were determined under unsteady conditions, and the impact of turbulence intensity was successfully incorporated into model parameter evaluations. The modeling results from 2D transient analysis exhibit similar predictability as those obtained from calibration using the genetic algorithm.
- chlorine concentration
- unsteady conditions
- water distribution systems
- First received 23 July 2016.
- Accepted in revised form 5 January 2017.
- © 2017 The Authors
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