In complex systems characterized by the presence of private tanks and water scarcity conditions, water managers usually apply intermittent distribution, trying to reduce the water volumes supplied to the users and pipe leakages, or use pressure reduction valves for controlling pressure in the network. The application of pumps as turbines (PATs) appears as an alternative and sustainable solution to either control network pressure or produce energy. In the present paper, the economic benefit of PAT application in water distribution networks was investigated in a small district of Palermo network (Italy). The analysis of energy recovery, carried out by means of a numerical model based on the method of characteristics, shows that PATs can lead to a very attractive economical benefit in terms of energy production.
- dynamic network model
- energy recovery
- pump as turbine
- renewable energy
- water distribution network
- First received 28 January 2014.
- Accepted in revised form 2 January 2015.
- © IWA Publishing 2015